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Earthquakes and tsunami

Becker, J.S., McBride, S.K., Vinnell, L.J., Saunders, W.S.A., Leonard, G.S., Sullivan, T.J. & Gledhill, K. (2022) Earthquakes and tsunami. In: McGee, T.K. & Penning-Rowsell, E.C. (Eds.), Routledge handbook of environmental hazards and society (pp. 13-32). https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367854584-3


This book chapter examines the nature, geography, and impact of earthquakes. These occur as a burst of sudden ground shaking created by the release of accumulated stress along a fault, often influenced by movement of the world's tectonic plates. Ground shaking from an earthquake can generate additional hazards, including landslides, liquefaction, and tsunami. According to the 2019 "Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction", earthquakes combined with tsunami are the most damaging natural hazards globally. Impacts of earthquakes and tsunami on people have increased around the world as human development of built infrastructure continues to expand. The chapter also looks at mitigation measures. Adverse earthquake and tsunami impacts can be reduced through strategies including land-use planning, engineering, mitigation and preparedness, emergency planning, warnings, and exercises, depending on the country and considering the geography, built environment, and social and cultural contexts.

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